Chromatine Dynamics関連の注目論文の紹介


Cell 158 (2014), 339-52. PubMed
3D Trajectories Adopted by Coding and Regulatory DNA Elements: First-Passage Times for Genomic Interactions.
Lucas JS, Zhang Y, Dudko OK, Murre C.


During B lymphocyte development, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (VH), diversity (DH), and joining (JH) segments assemble to generate a diverse antigen receptor repertoire. Here, we have marked the distal VH and DH-JH-Eμ regions with Tet-operator binding sites and traced their 3Dtrajectories in pro-B cells transduced with a retrovirus encoding Tet-repressor-EGFP. We found that these elements displayed fractional Langevin motion (fLm) due to the viscoelastic hindrance from the surrounding network of proteins and chromatin fibers. Using fractional Langevin dynamics modeling, we found that, with high probability, DHJH elements reach a VH element within minutes. Spatial confinement emerged as the dominant parameter that determined the frequency of such encounters. We propose that the viscoelastic nature of the nuclear environment causes codingelements and regulatory elements to bounce back and forth in a spring-like fashion until specific genomic interactions are established and that spatial confinement of topological domains largely controls first-passage times for genomic interactions.


Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110 (2013), E3605-11. PubMed
Nonspecific bridging-induced attraction drives clustering of DNA-binding proteins and genome organization.
Brackley CA1, Taylor S, Papantonis A, Cook PR, Marenduzzo D.


Molecular dynamics simulations are used to model proteins that diffuse to DNA, bind, and dissociate; in the absence of any explicit interaction between proteins, or between templates, binding spontaneously induces local DNA compaction and protein aggregation. Small bivalent proteins form into rows [as on binding of the bacterial histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS)], large proteins into quasi-spherical aggregates (as on nanoparticle binding), and cylinders with eight binding sites (representing octameric nucleosomal cores) into irregularly folded clusters (like those seen in nucleosomal strings). Binding of RNA polymerase II and a transcription factor (NFκB) to the appropriate sites on four human chromosomes generates protein clusters analogous to transcription factories, multiscale loops, and intrachromosomal contacts that mimic those found in vivo. We suggest that this emergent behavior of clustering is driven by an entropic bridging-induced attraction that minimizes bending and looping penalties in the template.


PLoS Comput. Biol. 4 (2008), e1000153. PubMed
Structure and dynamics of interphase chromosomes.
Rosa A, Everaers R.


During interphase chromosomes decondense, but fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments reveal the existence of distinct territories occupied by individual chromosomes inside the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells. We use computer simulations to show that the existence and stability of territories is a kinetic effect that can be explained without invoking an underlying nuclear scaffold or protein-mediated interactions between DNA sequences. In particular, we show that the experimentally observed territory shapes and spatial distances between marked chromosome sites for human, Drosophila, and budding yeast chromosomes can be reproduced by a parameter-free minimal model of decondensing chromosomes. Our results suggest that the observed interphase structure and dynamics are due to generic polymer effects: confined Brownian motion conserving the local topological state of long chain molecules and segregation of mutually unentangled chains due to topological constraints.


Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106 (2009), 3812-3817. PubMed
Spatially confined folding of chromatin in the interphase nucleus.
Mateos-Langerak J, Bohn M, de Leeuw W, Giromus O, Manders EM, Verschure PJ, Indemans MH, Gierman HJ, Heermann DW, van Driel R, Goetze S.


Genome function in higher eukaryotes involves major changes in the spatial organization of the chromatin fiber. Nevertheless, our understanding of chromatin folding is remarkably limited. Polymer models have been used to describe chromatin folding. However, none of the proposed models gives a satisfactory explanation of experimental data. In particularly, they ignore that each chromosome occupies a confined space, i.e., the chromosome territory. Here, we present a polymer model that is able to describe key properties of chromatin over length scales ranging from 0.5 to 75 Mb. This random loop (RL) model assumes a self-avoiding random walk folding of the polymer backbone and defines a probability P for 2 monomers to interact, creating loops of a broad size range. Model predictions are compared with systematic measurements of chromatin folding of the q-arms of chromosomes 1 and 11. The RL model can explain our observed data and suggests that on the tens-of-megabases length scale P is small, i.e., 10-30 loops per 100 Mb. This is sufficient to enforce folding inside the confined space of a chromosome territory. On the 0.5- to 3-Mb length scale chromatin compaction differs in different subchromosomal domains. This aspect of chromatin structure is incorporated in the RL model by introducing heterogeneity along the fiber contour length due to different local looping probabilities. The RL model creates a quantitative and predictive framework for the identification of nuclear components that are responsible for chromatin-chromatin interactions and determine the 3-dimensional organization of the chromatin fiber.


EMBO J. 28 (2009), 3785-3798. PubMed
Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin.
Bancaud A, Huet S, Daigle N, Mozziconacci J, Beaudouin J, Ellenberg J.


The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance.


Cell 153 (2013), 882-895. PubMed
Four-dimensional imaging of E. coli nucleoid organization and dynamics in living cells.
Fisher JK, Bourniquel A, Witz G, Weiner B, Prentiss M, Kleckner N.


Visualization of living E. coli nucleoids, defined by HupA-mCherry, reveals a discrete, dynamic helical ellipsoid. Three basic features emerge. (1) Nucleoid density coalesces into longitudinal bundles, giving a stiff, low-DNA-density ellipsoid. (2) This ellipsoid is radially confined within the cell cylinder. Radial confinement gives helical shape and directs global nucleoid dynamics, including sister segregation. (3) Longitudinal density waves flux back and forth along the nucleoid, with 5%-10% of density shifting within 5 s, enhancing internal nucleoid mobility. Furthermore, sisters separate end-to-end in sequential discontinuous pulses, each elongating the nucleoid by 5%-15%. Pulses occur at 20 min intervals, at defined cell-cycle times. This progression includes sequential installation and release of programmed tethers, implying cyclic accumulation and relief of intranucleoid mechanical stress. These effects could comprise a chromosome-based cell-cycle engine. Overall, the presented results suggest a general conceptual framework for bacterial nucleoid morphogenesis and dynamics.


Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109 (2012), 7338-7343. PubMed
Nonthermal ATP-dependent fluctuations contribute to the in vivo motion of chromosomal loci.
Weber SC, Spakowitz AJ, Theriot JA.


Chromosomal loci jiggle in place between segregation events in prokaryotic cells and during interphase in eukaryotic nuclei. This motion seems random and is often attributed to brownian motion. However, we show here that locus dynamics in live bacteria and yeast are sensitive to metabolic activity. When ATP synthesis is inhibited, the apparent diffusion coefficient decreases, whereas the subdiffusive scaling exponent remains constant. Furthermore, the magnitude of locus motion increases more steeply with temperature in untreated cells than in ATP-depleted cells. This "superthermal" response suggests that untreated cells have an additional source of molecular agitation, beyond thermal motion, that increases sharply with temperature. Such ATP-dependent fluctuations are likely mechanical, because the heat dissipated from metabolic processes is insufficient to account for the difference in locus motion between untreated and ATP-depleted cells. Our data indicate that ATP-dependent enzymatic activity, in addition to thermal fluctuations, contributes to the molecular agitation driving random (sub)diffusive motion in the living cell.


Cell 157 (2014), 950-963. PubMed
Predictive polymer modeling reveals coupled fluctuations in chromosome conformation and transcription.
Giorgetti L, Galupa R, Nora EP, Piolot T, Lam F, Dekker J, Tiana G, Heard E.


A new level of chromosome organization, topologically associating domains (TADs), was recently uncovered by chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques. To explore TAD structure and function, we developed a polymer model that can extract the full repertoire of chromatin conformations within TADs from population-based 3C data. This model predicts actual physical distances and to what extent chromosomal contacts vary between cells. It also identifies interactions within single TADs that stabilize boundaries between TADs and allows us to identify and genetically validate key structural elements within TADs. Combining the model's predictions with high-resolution DNA FISH and quantitative RNA FISH for TADs within the X-inactivation center (Xic), we dissect the relationship between transcription and spatial proximity to cis-regulatory elements. We demonstrate that contacts between potential regulatory elements occur in the context of fluctuating structures rather than stable loops and propose that such fluctuations may contribute to asymmetric expression in the Xic during X inactivation.


Biophys. J. 102 (2012), 2186-2191. PubMed
Geometry-induced bursting dynamics in gene expression.
Meyer B, Bénichou O, Kafri Y, Voituriez R.


In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, genes are transcribed stochastically according to various temporal patterns that range from simple first-order kinetics to marked bursts, resulting in temporal and cell-to-cell variations of mRNA and protein levels. Here, we consider the effect of the transport of regulatory molecules on the noise in gene expression by taking into account explicitly the dynamics of a finite number of transcription factors confined in the cell. We calculate analytically time-dependent correlation functions of mRNA levels for a wide range of transport mechanisms and find that in the limit of small-transcription-factor copy number, the results differ significantly from standard approaches, which ignore confinement. It is shown how such dynamical quantities, which can now be obtained experimentally, can be used to identify the underlying mechanisms of transcription. Of particular importance, it is demonstrated that the geometry of transcription-factor trajectories in the cellular environment plays a key role in transcription kinetics, and can intrinsically generate the observed various transcription patterns ranging from simple first-order kinetics to bursts.


Cell 152 (2013), 584-598. PubMed
LBR and Lamin A/C Sequentially Tether Peripheral Heterochromatin and Inversely Regulate Differentiation.
Irina Solovei, Audrey S. Wang, Katharina Thanisch, Christine S. Schmidt, Stefan Krebs, Monika Zwerger, Tatiana V. Cohen, Didier Devys, Roland Foisner, Leo Peichl, Harald Herrmann, Helmut Blum, Dieter Engelkamp, Colin L. Stewart, Heinrich Leonhardt, Boris Joffe.


Eukaryotic cells have a layer of heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery. To investigate mechanisms regulating chromatin distribution, we analyzed heterochromatin organization in different tissues and species, including mice with mutations in the lamin B receptor (Lbr) and lamin A (Lmna) genes that encode nuclear envelope (NE) proteins. We identified LBR- and lamin-A/C-dependent mechanisms tethering heterochromatin to the NE. The two tethers are sequentially used during cellular differentiation and development: first the LBR- and then the lamin-A/C-dependent tether. The absence of both LBR and lamin A/C leads to loss of peripheral heterochromatin and an inverted architecture with heterochromatin localizing to the nuclear interior. Myoblast transcriptome analyses indicated that selective disruption of the LBR- or lamin-A-dependent heterochromatin tethers have opposite effects on muscle gene expression, either increasing or decreasing, respectively. These results show how changes in NE composition contribute to regulating heterochromatin positioning, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during development.


Hum. Mol. Genet. 14 (2005), R47-R58. PubMed
Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals.
Morgan HD, Santos F, Green K, Dean W, Reik W.


Epigenetic marking systems confer stability of gene expression during mammalian development. Genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming occurs at stages when developmental potency of cells changes. At fertilization, the paternal genome exchanges protamines for histones, undergoes DNA demethylation, and acquires histone modifications, whereas the maternal genome appears epigenetically more static. During preimplantation development, there is passive DNA demethylation and further reorganization of histone modifications. In blastocysts, embryonic and extraembryonic lineages first show different epigenetic marks. This epigenetic reprogramming is likely to be needed for totipotency, correct initiation of embryonic gene expression, and early lineage development in the embryo. Comparative work demonstrates reprogramming in all mammalian species analysed, but the extent and timing varies, consistent with notable differences between species during preimplantation development. Parental imprinting marks originate in sperm and oocytes and are generally protected from this genome-wide reprogramming. Early primordial germ cells possess imprinting marks similar to those of somatic cells. However, rapid DNA demethylation after midgestation erases these parental imprints, in preparation for sex-specific de novo methylation during gametogenesis. Aberrant reprogramming of somatic epigenetic marks after somatic cell nuclear transfer leads to epigenetic defects in cloned embryos and stem cells. Links between epigenetic marking systems appear to be developmentally regulated contributing to plasticity. A number of activities that confer epigenetic marks are firmly established, while for those that remove marks, particularly methylation, some interesting candidates have emerged recently which need thorough testing in vivo. A mechanistic understanding of reprogramming will be crucial for medical applications of stem cell technology.


Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (2010), 8164-8177. PubMed
Mapping of long-range associations throughout the fission yeast genome reveals global genome organization linked to transcriptional regulation.
Tanizawa H, Iwasaki O, Tanaka A, Capizzi JR, Wickramasinghe P, Lee M, Fu Z, Noma K.


We have comprehensively mapped long-range associations between chromosomal regions throughout the fission yeast genome using the latest genomics approach that combines next generation sequencing and chromosome conformation capture (3C). Our relatively simple approach, referred to as enrichment of ligation products (ELP), involves digestion of the 3C sample with a 4 bp cutter and self-ligation, achieving a resolution of 20 kb. It recaptures previously characterized genome organizations and also identifies new and important interactions. We have modeled the 3D structure of the entire fission yeast genome and have explored the functional relationships between the global genome organization and transcriptional regulation. We find significant associations among highly transcribed genes. Moreover, we demonstrate that genes co-regulated during the cell cycle tend to associate with one another when activated. Remarkably, functionally defined genes derived from particular gene ontology groups tend to associate in a statistically significant manner. Those significantly associating genes frequently contain the same DNA motifs at their promoter regions, suggesting that potential transcription factors binding to these motifs are involved in defining the associations among those genes. Our study suggests the presence of a global genome organization in fission yeast that is functionally similar to the recently proposed mammalian transcription factory.


J. Cell Physiol. 228 (2013), 609-616. PubMed
Chromatin dynamics in living cells: identification of oscillatory motion.
Pliss A, Malyavantham KS, Bhattacharya S, Berezney R.


Genomic DNA in mammalian cells is organized into ~1 Mbp chromatin domains (ChrD) which represent the basic structural units for DNA compaction, replication, and transcription. Remarkably, ChrD are highly dynamic and undergo both translational movement and configurational changes. In this study, we introduce an automated motion tracking analysis to measure, both in 2D and 3D, the linear displacement of early, mid and late S-phase replicated ChrD over short time periods (<1 sec). We conclude that previously identified large-scale transitions in the spatial position and configuration of chromatin, originate from asymmetric oscillations of the ChrD detectable in fractions of a second. The rapid oscillatory motion correlates with the replication timing of the ChrD with early S replicated ChrD showing the highest levels of motion and late S-phase chromatin the lowest. Virtually identical levels of oscillatory motion were detected when ChrD were measured during active DNA replication or during inhibition of transcription with DRB or α-amanitin. While this motion is energy independent, the oscillations of early S and mid S, but not late S replicated chromatin, are reduced by cell permeabilization. This suggests involvement of soluble factors in the regulation of chromatin dynamics. The DNA intercalating agent actinomycin D also significantly inhibits early S-labeled chromatin oscillation. We propose that rapid asymmetric oscillations of <1 sec are the basis for translational movements and configurational changes in ChrD previously detected over time spans of minutes-hours, and are the result of both the stochastic collisions of macromolecules and specific molecular interactions.


Cell 152 (2013), 1355-1364. PubMed
Chromatin movement in the maintenance of genome stability.
Dion V, Gasser SM.


Mechanistic analyses based on improved imaging techniques have begun to explore the biological implications of chromatin movement within the nucleus. Studies in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have shed light on what regulates the mobility of DNA over long distances. Interestingly, in eukaryotes, genomic loci increase their movement in response to double-strand break induction. Break mobility, in turn, correlates with the efficiency of repair by homologous recombination. We review here the source and regulation of DNA mobility and discuss how it can both contribute to and jeopardize genome stability.